Before you go for any Chemistry tuition lesson, you need to know some of the basic concepts. One of the main concepts that every student should know is experimental Chemistry. Experimental Chemistry mainly covers the use of suitable apparatus and experimental techniques in the laboratory and chemical industry. As such, the two main topics that will be covered in experimental Chemistry are experimental design and methods of purification and analysis.
In experimental design, you will examine appropriate use of simple apparatus for taking measurements. In methods of purification and analysis, you will appreciate the need for pure substances and explore the various purification techniques that can be used to obtain pure substances from mixtures.
Some of the basic measurements in experimental design include time, temperature, mass and volume. You can use a stopwatch to measure time, a thermometer to measure temperature and an electronic or a beam balance to measure mass.
However, there are numerous apparatus to measure different sets of volume. These include burettes, pipettes, beakers and measuring cylinders for measuring volumes of liquid. Burettes are used to measure liquids of maximum fifty cubic centimetres, and up to an accuracy of two decimal places. Pipettes, on the other hand can be used to measure exact volumes such as twenty five cubic centimetres or fifty cubic centimetres. Notwithstanding, cylinders and beakers are usually used to measure larger volumes, but a cylinder is more accurate since it can measure up to one decimal place.
Gas syringes are used for measuring volumes of gases. There are also a few methods to collect different types of gases before we measure their volumes. These methods include displacement of water, downward delivery and upward delivery. The specific type of method to use depends on the solubility and density of the gas in water.
Next, let us cover the need for pure substances and explore the various purification techniques that can be used to obtain pure substances from mixtures. A pure substance is a single substance that is not mixed with anything else while a mixture contains two or more substances not chemically combined together.
Pure substances are particularly important in the computer, food and pharmaceutical industry. Impurities in food and drugs can be dangerous because they can poison people. In addition, impurities can increase the boiling point, decrease the melting point of substances and cause the substances to melt and boil over a range of temperatures.
As pure substances are very important in numerous industries, scientists have come up with a few purification techniques to obtain pure substances from mixtures. Some of the common techniques include filtration, evaporation, crystallisation, simple distillation, fractional distillation, paper chromatography, separating funnel and sublimation. The method used depends on the properties, the solubilities and physical states of the constituents of a mixture.
There you have it, the suitable apparatus and experimental techniques that are used in the laboratory and chemical industry. It is prudent that you know the appropriate apparatus when taking measurements and the most suitable experimental techniques when purifying mixtures so that you can get a better understanding of experimental Chemistry before you take up any Chemistry tuition Singapore has to offer. If you are interested to find out more about home tuition for yourself or your child, then check out FamilyTutor.sg.